Abdul-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani (d.1179).
Remembrance, or making mention. Both oral and mental. Be always repeating the
Dhikr imparted to you so that you may attain the beatific vision. Khwaja Bahauddin
Naqshband said, "The aim in Dhikr is that the heart be always aware of al-Haqq [The
Truth, a Beautiful Name of Allah], for its practice banished inattention."
Restraint. The person saying the Dhikr, when engaging in the heart-repetition of the
blessed phrase [shahada] should intersperse it with such phrases as "my God you are
my Goal and your satisfaction is my aim", to help to keep one's thoughts form straying.
Other masters say that it means 'return' or 'repent', i.e, return to al-Haqq by way of
Watchfulness. Over wandering, passing thoughts when repeating the blessed phrase.
Recollection. Concentration upon the Divine Presence in a condition of Dhawq [zoq],
foretaste, intuitive anticipation or perceptiveness, not using external aids.
Hosh dar dam
Awareness while breathing. The technique of breath control. Said Khwaja Bahauddin
Naqshband, "The external basis of this tariqa is the breath." One must not exhale in
forgetfulness or inhale in forgetfulness.
Safar dar watan
Journeying in one's homeland. This is an interior journey, the movement from
blameworthy to praiseworthy qualities. Others refer to it as the vision or revelation of
the hidden side of the Shahada.
Nazar bar qadam
Watching one's steps. Let the salik [pilgrim] ever be watchful during his journey,
whatever the type of country through which he is passing that he does not let his gaze
be distracted from the goal of his journey.
Khalwat dar anjuman
Solitude in a crowd. The journey of the salik, though outwardly it is in the world,
inwardly it is with God. Leaders of the Tariqa have said,"In this tariqa association is in
the crowd [assembly] and disassociation in the khalwa." A common weekly practice
was to perform the dhikr in the assembly.